Structure de guides d'onde photo-induits et analogies quantiques

Abstract : The propagation of light in an array of waveguides differs strongly from the one in free space. In coupled waveguides, light propagation can be described using a coupled wave theory leading to an equation similar to the Schrödinger equation. We use this similarity in order to study optical-quantum analogies in waveguides array. Waveguides are analogous to discrete energy levels whereas coupling constants between the waveguides are similar to the Rabi frequencies of pulses that couple these levels. In order to demonstrate these analogies, versatile structures are highly desirable. However, all conventional techniques of waveguide inscription (CVD, ion/proton exchange or photo-inscription using femtosecond laser) provide static and non reconfigurable structures. Our approach is based on a proper lateral illumination of a biased photorefractive crystal. The photo-induction of the structure is possible thanks to the crystal photo-conductivity and the Pockels effect. Thus, we show that, using our approach, different versatile structures can be realized in the same sample. We use these structures in order to demonstrate different quantum optical analogies. Firstly, we investigate an optical analogy to the STIRAP effect (STImulated Raman Adiabatic Passage). The light, initially injected into the first waveguide, is transferred to the last waveguide through an array composed of up to nine waveguides. This transfer is achieved only if the longitudinally modulated coupling constants are arranged in a counter-intuitive order. Moreover, we use this analogy to demonstrate theoretically and experimentally an achromatic beam splitter where the intensity ratio in the output ports depends only on the ratio of the coupling constants. We also realize an analogy to the EIT effect (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) in an optical structure composed of three coupled waveguides. If the third waveguide is placed very close to the second one, light transfer from the first becomes "transparent". Finally, we demonstrate that by detuning the propagation constant of the first waveguide, the light transfer can be re-activated for two particular values of the detuning in analogy to the Autler-Townes effect
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Charles Ciret. Structure de guides d'onde photo-induits et analogies quantiques. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0106⟩. ⟨tel-01750093⟩

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