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Disponibilité spatio-temporelle et transfert des pesticides dans le sol

Abstract : Available pesticides in soils can be transferred by sail mobile water and contaminate water resources. Our aim was to assess the behaviour of different sail-pesticides combinations ranging from laboratory to field scale, and lasting from minute to season in order to assess the relevance of fixed parameters. Sorption/desorption processes control pesticide immediate availability. Batch sorption and desorption experiments were performed with 13 soils and 5 molecules. Experimental data indicated a gradient in sail sorption for the five molecules : trifluraline >> 2,4-D > isoproturon > atrazine >> Bentazone. Sorption was greatly influenced by naturally occurring sail pH whereas sail organic matter governed the adsorption of the four other compounds. Sorption and desorption are dynamic processes that interact with the compound degradation. ln the soils, residues can be extractable or not. Bentazone diffusion, linked to its solubility, conduces to its physical entrapment in the sail matrix whereas the larger mineralization of the 2,4-D molecules restricted its availability. At the field scale, sail hydrodynamics controls the behaviour of the applied pesticides. The monitoring of drainage water quality has indicated intra and inter-seasons variations linked bath to sail and molecule physico-chemical properties. Laboratory parameters are inadequate to assess processes complexity at the field scale. Transfer simulations conduced by using the mechanistic, stochastic model AgriFiux[copyright] have provided coherent results.
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Arnaud Boivin. Disponibilité spatio-temporelle et transfert des pesticides dans le sol. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003INPL069N⟩. ⟨tel-01750106⟩



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