Intérêts du test des comètes pour l'évaluation de la génotoxicité environnementale

Abstract : The aims of this work was to the study the interest of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, in environmental genotoxicity. DNA damage were studied in mammals contaminated via the food and in freshwater invertebrates. Studies with the rats demonstrated the occurrence of DNA damage in the livers of the animals fed with mussels strongly contaminated following an oil slick and established a transfer of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons present in mussels to the consumers. Genotoxic effects were also registered in the bone marrow cells. The results of a study on their reversibility pointed that DNA damages were transitory, with a complete repair in two weeks in our exposure conditions. The second part of this work related genotoxic effects consecutive to in vivo exposures to benzo(a)pyrene and ferric iron in the freshwater bivalve Unio tumidus. For the two markers of genotoxicity, DNA breaks measured by the comet assay and oxidative DNA damage assessed by the measurement of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, responses were mainly consecutive to the toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene. DNA breaks did not appear as the most sensitive parameter under these conditions of exposure, comparatively to the measure of DNA oxidation lesions. Globally, the comet assay proved to be adjusted to study the genotoxicity of environmental samples and the biodisponibility of genotoxic compounds.
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Sébastien Lemiere. Intérêts du test des comètes pour l'évaluation de la génotoxicité environnementale. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2004. Français. ⟨NNT : 2004METZ005S⟩. ⟨tel-01750248⟩

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