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Relations entre la variabilité de la pollution urbaine et le contexte socio-culturel du bassin de collecte

Abstract : The variation of urban pollution related to human activity depends on several spatial and temporal scales: daily, weekly, annual, multi-year. To develop a model predicting this variations, different tools are used including demographic characteristics (age, sex, income), on the basis of cadastral data and aerial photographs and sampling campaigns on 24h. The use of these tools is illustrated with the example of the Urban area of Nancy. The results of sampling campaigns in three different catchments (semi-rural village, residential area, and residential area with large hospital) are discussed, considering its relation with the human activities (day versus night, meals, laundry). Better anticipating the variability of pollution which arrived to the wastewater treatment plant would improve their management and therefore their performances. These measurements also allowed a better understanding of the variability of some micropollutants such as heavy metals. The daily variation pattern in the big city is less marked than rural communities. This variability is probably related to the contributions of professional activities on different sites. It depends on the modification of the collection network, lifestyle, demographics on the water catchment, in terms of spatial distribution and age class in the studied area. The macropollution (C, N-NH4, P) and metal micropollution (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Al) were considered. Pollution peaks were observed: For residential areas, the first peak corresponds to human activity in the morning (around 10:00) before leaving home to work, the second peak corresponds to the activities at the time of returning home (around 20:00) after a day's work. We did not find a proper scheme for mixed zones (residential with commercial, industrial and hospital activities). Variations in flow and composition of the wastewater reproduce very well the human cycle, taking into account modifications in population, information on land use and daily journeys between home and work in the studied sites
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Nang Dinh Le. Relations entre la variabilité de la pollution urbaine et le contexte socio-culturel du bassin de collecte. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0173⟩. ⟨tel-01750351⟩

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