Caractérisation expérimentale des instabilités et du transport non diffusif dans une colonne de plasma magnétisé. Développement, analyse critique et validation des diagnostics par sondes et imagerie rapide

Abstract : The general framework of this thesis is the study of unstable and turbulent regimes in the magnetized plasma device Mirabelle. The existence of pressure and potentiel gradients accross the magnetic field leads to drift-wave and flute mode instabilities which are responsible for non-diffusive cross-field particle transport. The experimental investigation of these turbulence mechanisms needs specific diagnostic methods that turn out to be complex. The first part of the work is devoted to equilibrium profile measurements by electrostatic probes. In addition to conventional Langmuir probes, we have validated the use of emissive probes for direct measurements of the plasma potential in the Mirabelle device. We have also developed the ball-pen probe as an alternative diagnostic method to directly measure the plasma potential. A full parametric study allowed us to find several criteria on the probe geometry and electronics wich are essential to be fulfilled to obtain reliable measurements in a low-temperature and low-magnetized plasma. The second part of the work is dedicated to plasma fluctuations and fluctuations induced transport measurements. The use of fast imaging as a diagnostic tool to obtain a nonperturbative and bi-dimensional plasma density fluctuation measurement has been validated in the helium plasma of the Mirabelle device. The combination of spectroscopic and interference filters measurements, as well as the detailed study of various radiative transitions, allowed to establish an explicit link between the electron density and light naturally emitted by the plasma. The delicate question of the extent of turbulent transport by triple electrostatic probes is discussed in detail. Different types of probes, emissive probes and conventional Langmuir probes, were used to measure the turbulent transport in an unstable drift-wave regime. The contradiction between the results obtained from the different diagnostic methods has led us to reconsider the reliability of transport measurements by triple probe
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Guillaume Bousselin. Caractérisation expérimentale des instabilités et du transport non diffusif dans une colonne de plasma magnétisé. Développement, analyse critique et validation des diagnostics par sondes et imagerie rapide. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0176⟩. ⟨tel-01750353⟩

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