Évaluations physico-chimique, biochimique et pharmacologique de S-nitrosothiols : rôle des enzymes membranaires dans la libération de l'oxyde nitrique

Abstract : The aim of our work was to evaluate the enzymatic pathways involved in the release of nitric oxide and in the vasorelaxant effect of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO). We were interested in two enzymes: the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), because they play an important role in RSNO denitrosation. Two RSNO were studied: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous mononitrosothiol, and S,S'-dinitrosobucillamine (BUC(NO)2), a new dinitrosothiol. We synthesized RSNO and we structurally characterized these products. The resulting data are consistent with the expected structure. Our products have a high purity (>97%) and a limited amount of impurities allowing their suitable use in biological experiments. The vasorelaxant effects of RSNO and the involvement of GGT and PDI were evaluated. The results indicate that purified GGT and PDI denitrosate GSNO in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated by using an ex vivo model consisting in an aortic ring isolated from Wistar rat that the vasorelaxant effect of GSNO (EC50=3,2±0,5.10-7 M) was dependent on the endothelium and GGT and PDI activities. As concerns BUC(NO)2, this dinitrosothiol catabolized in vitro by PDI, is more potent (EC50=2,2±0,2.10-8 M) than the most of nitrosothiols described in the literature. This vasorelaxation effect was dependent on PDI activity. In conclusion, our data led to a better understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the vascular effects of RSNO, which will permit, in physiopathological context, to optimize the choice of the best RSNO for use in a therapeutic purpose
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Fatima Dahboul. Évaluations physico-chimique, biochimique et pharmacologique de S-nitrosothiols : rôle des enzymes membranaires dans la libération de l'oxyde nitrique. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0180⟩. ⟨tel-01750357⟩

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