Procédés de séparation multi colonnes continus : extension à la chromatographie à gradient de solvant

Abstract : Multi-column chromatographic processes have known, for a few years, a development on all scales, from high added value pharmaceutical products to major chemical intermediates. The specificity of the present work is to study the influence of a gradient elution for these processes. It consists in varying the eluent strength of the mobile phase over the time. The aim is to increase the productivity and the recovery ratio of a high added value product, while satisfying the constraints of purity. Solvent gradient is currently used in analytical chromatography and presents a recent interest in preparative chromatography. The applications concern separations of complex mixtures where the target species has an intermediate affinity for the solid phase compared to other species, which is often the case during the purification of biomolecules extracted from natural raw materials or resulting from biotechnologies. In this case, separation leads to three fractions, impurities weakly retained, an intermediate fraction and impurities strongly retained. For our study, a model mixture, inexpensive and nontoxic, of five amino acids was selected considering their nonpolar and hydrophobic character. The separations were carried out by reversed phase chromatography. An experimental study using a HPLC system was first carried out with single-element solution of each amino acid in isocratic mode. This enabled to determine adsorption isotherm parameters. An empirical law giving the retention factor as a function of eluent composition was determined (K = f (xmethanol)). A work of modeling / simulation, assuming linear isotherm and based on the mixed cells approach, permitted to simulate the separations obtained in the case of a one-column process, then in the case of a multi-column system. The use of retention factors laws allowed to carry out simulations for different solvent gradients. In the case of a single column, a simple methodology was developed to calculate the optimal solvent gradient. The gradient was optimized by minimizing the separation time and by respecting a constraint on the peaks resolution of the two species which are the most difficult to separate. A really good adequacy was observed between simulations and the experimental results. Numerical experimentations, executed in the case of the multi-columns process, made it possible, yet, to find the optimal operating parameters in the case of the studied mixture. These settings will be applied in the experimental validation which will be realized on the pilot unit. This unit has three columns. It is a cyclic sequential process. For the selected operating mode, each cycle contains eight steps. At each step, inlets ant outlets streams of different columns are switched. The criteria for the target species fraction are purity and recovery
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Nawal Tlili. Procédés de séparation multi colonnes continus : extension à la chromatographie à gradient de solvant. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0190⟩. ⟨tel-01750445⟩

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