Development of new types of composite electrodes based on natural clays and their analytical applications

Abstract : The thesis is devoted to the development of composite electrodes based on natural clays and their electrochemical characterization for analytical purposes, in particular for the determination of metal cations (Cu2+) and some therapeutic substances. The first experimental chapter is devoted to a comparative study of the chemical, structural and physico-chemical properties of two natural clays extracted from two sites in Romania. It appears that Valea Chioarului clay, of montmorillonite type, has the most interesting properties with a high specific surface area (190 m2/g). The second chapter presents a prospective analysis of the two clays as electrode materials using a clay/polyelectrolyte composite film. Three target molecules of pharmaceutical interest have been selected: ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and acetaminophen. This last molecule can be detected either by direct oxidation or through an electro-enzymatic reaction with horseradish peroxidase. The third and fourth chapters are devoted to the use of clays exchanged by ammonium cations for copper detection. Thus, Valea Chioarului clay was partially exchanged with tétrabutylammumium. The permeability of the organoclay films coated with a cellulose membrane was studied by using different electroactive probes of different charging, Ru(NH3)63+, [Fe(CN)6]3-, Fc(MeOH)2. The experimental conditions were then optimized for the detection of Cu (II) and Cd (II) with the modified electrodes by square wave voltammetry. In the last chapter, an original modified electrode configuration was developed. This implies composite mesoporous silica-clay electrodes prepared by electrodeposition in the presence or absence of a surfactant, like cetyltrimethylammonium. The permeability of the films was also investigated with the above mentioned molecules. It appears that the extraction of the surfactant leads to very stable and homogeneous porous films that show Cu (II) accumulation properties
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Adela Maghear. Development of new types of composite electrodes based on natural clays and their analytical applications. Other. Université de Lorraine, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0201⟩. ⟨tel-01750454⟩

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