Conséquences d'une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur le développement cérébral : implication du programme neurogénique et rôle de l'homocystéine

Abstract : Methyl donors (B12 and folate) regulate the one-carbon cycle that plays an important role in the epigenetic/epigenomic regulations by methylation. Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) leads to intrauterine growth retardation and promotes neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Also, high levels of homocysteine associated with such a deficiency are a risk factor for various neurodegenerative diseases. We have studied the consequences of a periconceptional and gestational deficiency on the development of the embryonic brain of Wistar rats. Morphometric studies showed retardation in the development of deficient embryos which also affected the brain, with an atrophy of some structures including hippocampus, cortex and subventricular zone. Given the high sensitivity of the hippocampus, the effects of MDD have been additionally studied in a cellular model of hippocampal neuronal progenitors. Using these two models, we showed both in vivo and in vitro the downregulation of Stat3 pathway regulating cell proliferation and survival, through an epigenomic post-transcriptional process involving miR-124. Disruption of the neurogenic program implying histone deacetylases was shown to alter cell differentiation. Furthermore, we showed that methyl donor deficiency was associated with a post-translational modification corresponding to an irreversible N- homocysteinylation of neuronal proteins, especially those associated with the cytoskeleton. Such a process leads to protein aggregation, a phenomenon involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The combination of these different mechanisms provides new insights into developmental defects and cognitive impairment associated with an early MDD, highlighting the importance of "fetal programming" in the occurrence of some neurological diseases
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Racha Kerek. Conséquences d'une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur le développement cérébral : implication du programme neurogénique et rôle de l'homocystéine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0236⟩. ⟨tel-01750530⟩

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