Intérêt des traits fonctionnels des communautés macrobenthiques dans le diagnostic dynamique de récupération biotique d'un cours d'eau suite à des actions de restauration

Abstract : The implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) has promoted the rapid development of many stream restoration programmes. However, very few studies have tried to improve the understanding of how anthropogenic pressure mitigation efforts contribute to the ecological recovery of streams. Moreover, available feedbacks have mainly focused on the taxonomic responses of aquatic communities. Nowadays, the assessment of stream ecological quality is increasingly driven by functional approaches, including the use of biological traits of benthic invertebrates. The main goal of my PhD work has been to characterize the specific responses of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to different restoration actions implemented to reduce nutrient inputs or to improve stream hydromorphological conditions, and to compare such actions using different approaches (taxonomic and functional). Two sections of the Vistre River (south France) were studied. On a 3 km-long river section, we have surveyed the invertebrate assemblage recovery during a four year period including the commissioning of a new Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) equipped with biological treatment capable of significantly reducing N, P, and C inputs in the River. Five kilometres upstream, a 2 km-long reach was morphologically restored, including remaindering work, riparian vegetation planting and pebble input. Invertebrate assemblages were assessed simultaneously on six restored sites and three canalized, non-restored sites during three years. Our results have shown that among the metrics that reflect community recovery to nutrient input reduction, those based on taxonomic criteria respond faster than trait-based ones, but do not imply a complete recovery of invertebrate community functioning. Community recovery assessment based on biological traits has demonstrated also a better correlation with site hydromorphological characteristics which varied with restoration works. Moreover, trait-based approach allows a better explanation of the functional mechanisms that occur in benthic assemblages after chemical water quality or hydromorphological characteristic improvement. In a multi-stressor context, invertebrate community responses to different restoration actions have underlined the need for acting on both water chemical quality and hydromorphological environment to improve global stream quality and to allow convenient biological community recovery. Lessons from the Vistre River study have been examined to (i) identify practical implications for the development of an assessment tool for evaluating the ecological gain provided by restoration actions, and (ii) give elements to help managers in optimizing the definition and monitoring of restoration actions
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Evelyne Trichet-Arce. Intérêt des traits fonctionnels des communautés macrobenthiques dans le diagnostic dynamique de récupération biotique d'un cours d'eau suite à des actions de restauration. Ecotoxicologie. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0274⟩. ⟨tel-01750620⟩

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