Élimination sélective d'un mélange d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés Diesel par adsorption sur des matériaux zéolithiques

Abstract : Currently, about 80% of the pollution from unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) is emitted during the cold-start period, for an approximate duration of 120 s. For Diesel vehicles, a promising approach might be to trap the HC onto an adsorbent below 200-250 °C, and then to oxidize them at higher temperatures over a conventional oxidation catalyst. However, few publications in the literature deal with the adsorption / desorption of a complex mixture of HC, especially in the presence of inhibitors. In this study, we tried to assess in which extent structural and chemical properties of zeolite adsorbents could affect the adsorption and desorption characteristics of a model mixture of HC (propene, toluene, decane) in the absence/presence of inhibitors (NOx, H2O, COx ..). For this purpose, three sets of tests were performed in order to measure the respective influences of: (i) the composition of the HC mixture (ternary/binary) and the presence of water on the HY zeolite (with the faujasite structure) for several Si/Al ratios; (ii) the incorporation of a metallic cation (Cu, Pt, Ce, Cs) in the HY zeolite (Si/Al = 5); (iii) the topology and porosity of protonated zeolite (FAU, BEA, MOR, MFI, FER, LTA structures). The textural, structural and chemical properties of the studied zeolites were systematically characterized by nitrogen porosimetry, XRD, FTIR / ATR, DRS-UV-Vis, FTIR of CO, NO and adsorbed pyridine. In general, the breakthrough curves obtained with different compositions indicate that the distribution of each HC is strongly affected by the presence of other compounds present simultaneously in the porous network. For protonated Y zeolites, low Si/Al ratios promote selectively the adsorption of unsaturated HC while the more hydrophobic zeolites (for higher Si/Al ratios) preferentially adsorb decane. Among the various tested inhibitors (CO, NOx, H2O), only water has a strong influence on the adsorption capacities at low Si/Al ratios, due to a competitive adsorption with HC on acid sites. The incorporation of metallic species in the HY-5 zeolite enhances the selectivity for the adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons and especially the light ones (propene). TPSR experiments under reactive atmosphere showed that the presence of new Lewis acid sites Cu+ and/or Cu2+ on an exchange site strongly improves the NOx reduction by pre-adsorbed HC. The impregnated Pt-zeolite has a typical behaviour of an oxidation catalyst, all of the carboneous compounds (HC, CO,...) being completely converted to CO2 from 300 °C. The study of adsorption/desorption characteristics of HC among different zeolitic structures show that the topology and the strength of acid sites are also critical for the HC trapping. All these results allow to consider using some of these tested formulations for a "cold-start" application
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Alexandre Westermann. Élimination sélective d'un mélange d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés Diesel par adsorption sur des matériaux zéolithiques. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0275⟩. ⟨tel-01750621⟩

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