Contrôle de l'auxine dans les modifications du développement racinaire du peuplier en réponse au champignon ectomycorhizien Laccaria bicolor

Abstract : Root systems of host trees are known to establish the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to modifications of root development that including a stimulation of lateral host roots, and a modification in root growth. The phytohormone auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is known to regulate LRs formation and root growth. Our research focussed on auxin pathways in poplar root in response to L. bicolor. In this study, our data showed that the poplar-Laccaria bicolor interaction leads to the arrest of LRs and adventitious root growth after two weeks of interaction. We also showed that this arrest is not regulated by the Hartig net. Differential auxin responses were analyzed by using an auxin-responsive DR5::GUS marker line and revealed a loss of auxin response in ECM roots. An oligoarray-based transcript profiling of poplar roots in contact with L. bicolor highlights a differential expression of auxin asociated genes in ECM. Measurement of auxin metabolite in ECM and in the free living partners revealed an IAA accumulation, an activation of the IPyA (Indol-3-Pyruvic Acid) dependant IAA biosynthesis pathway in both partners, as well as changes in IAA conjugation pathways in poplar and in IAA degradation pathways in L. bicolor. Our findings illustrate the impact of L. bicolor colonization on root auxin metabolism and response, and also suggest a role of auxin as a signal in the formation of ECM and in the regulation of ECM function. In parallel, PtaPIN9 function analysis in response to L. bicolor has been performed. PtaPIN9 immunolocalization in poplar roots showed similar localization to AtPIN2 in epidermis cells. Transgenic lines having a modification in PtaPIN9 expression, did not formed new LRs in respond to L. bicolor. In ECM roots, the loss of PtaPIN9 signal is observed but modifications of PtaPIN9 expression did not modify the root growth arrest and the Hartig net formation. These results show major changes in auxin associate pathways in poplar root by the symbiotic fungus L. bicolor, during the formation of the mycorrhiza root. Our results offer perspectives on the role of auxin in root development and in the context plants-microbes interactions
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Alice Vayssières. Contrôle de l'auxine dans les modifications du développement racinaire du peuplier en réponse au champignon ectomycorhizien Laccaria bicolor. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0017⟩. ⟨tel-01750675⟩

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