Impact des taillis à très courte rotation de saules sur les propriétés fonctionnelles des sols et définition d'indicateurs de qualité

Abstract : Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) are a crop system intended to produce energy wood chips. This thesis aimed at assessing the impact of SRC on soil functioning and proposing quality indicators. Five samplings were performed in spring and autumn between 2010 and 2012 on plots including four couples of SRC and grassland, an alluvial forest and an agrosystem, in the Aisne valley. The following parameters were monitored: organic matter, total carbon, cation capacity exchange, available phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen basal respiration, earthworm biomass, density and diversity, fungal and bacterial density and diversity, enzymatic activity, physical and chemical organic matter characterisations. 6 years after conversion to SRC, earthworm and fungal density, basal respiration and laccase activity were higher in SRC soil compared to conventional agrosystem. These changes can be linked to qualitative and quantitative organic matter evolutions (increase of the C/N ratio and decrease of hydrogen index). Nitrogen and phosphorus seemed to be limiting factors for SRC crop yields. However, soil nutrient return and the good turnover of organic matter can buffer strong exportations. The measured parameters led to indicator definition and proposition of three indices: fertility, biological activity, density and diversity of biological communities. Principal response curves confirmed the positive effect of SRC on soil quality as observed with synthetic indices calculation
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Marie Stauffer. Impact des taillis à très courte rotation de saules sur les propriétés fonctionnelles des sols et définition d'indicateurs de qualité. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0030⟩. ⟨tel-01750687⟩

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