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Conception d’un indicateur prédictif évaluant les effets des pratiques agricoles sur la diversité floristique et ses services en grandes cultures à l’échelle de la bordure de champ

Abstract : Developing cropping systems supporting biodiversity is an important goal for agronomists in the current context of society. To achieve this goal, they need predictive methods assessing the effect of cropping practices on biodiversity to characterize and evaluate cropping systems. Among ecologists, a growing agreement exists to address biodiversity not only as species richness but also as ecosystemic services. There are numerous proposals of biodiversity indicators but those are based on diversity measurement within taxonomic groups or on management variables, and are not predictive. The objective of the thesis is to design a predictive indicator to assess the effects of cropping practices on biodiversity and its services. To achieve this, we decided to address plant diversity and its associated services, conservation value, a stake for society, and pollination, important stake for agriculture. We structured the thesis in three steps. First we selected cropping practices having combined effects on biodiversity and its services, identified their nature and assess the range of their effects at the field margin scale. In a second step, we integrated by expertise, this knowledge in an operational model. Following the design, we evaluate the sensitivity and the predictive quality of the model by comparing model outputs with field measurements carried out during the thesis or outside. Last we transformed outputs of the model (in form of presence probability for 338 species) into an indicator by aggregating them into synthetic value. Then, this was calibrated to selected references values on a scale between 0 (unfavorable) and 10 (favorable) easy to understand. The development of this operational predictive indicator will enable agronomists to assess positive and negative effects of cropping practices and to identify innovative practices supporting biodiversity and its services. The indicator can be used with other environmental, economic, and social indicators to assess sustainability of arable farming systems
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Charles Ricou. Conception d’un indicateur prédictif évaluant les effets des pratiques agricoles sur la diversité floristique et ses services en grandes cultures à l’échelle de la bordure de champ. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0107⟩. ⟨tel-01750872⟩

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