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Conception et optimisation d'un procédé extrapolable de purification d'acides hyaluroniques produits par culture microbienne

Abstract : Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biopolymer with mechanical and biological properties interesting the health and cosmetic areas. The industrial HA production is realized by implementation of streptococcus strains (group C or D). At the end of the production phase, a part of HA is free in a complex culture medium while the other remains associated to the cells in a capsule. The two main difficulties of the purification of HA lie, firstly, on the complexity of the production medium and, secondly, on the high requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia for such an application. The aim of this thesis was to provide an appropriate sequence of separation processes and a set of operating conditions for HA purification from a complex production medium which complies with the Pharmacopea. Initially, two original analytical methods for quantifying and evaluating the size of HA in complex environments have been developed in order to evaluate the performance criteria of the separation processes. Then, the HA extraction from the capsule, the elimination of cells, the purification and drying of HA were using classical separation processes and studied. The HA extraction by SDS or TCA showed that the HA bound to cells corresponds to 7 % of HA production. As a consequence, it was concluded that this step was not necessary. The cell separations from the culture medium by tangential microfiltration was unsuitable because of an excessive retention of HA (even at pore diameters higher than 0.22 µm) and a too fast membrane clogging. Good performances were observed with dead-end filtration using Celite. Then, the purification of HA by diafiltration (DF) with ultrafiltration membranes was considered. The operating conditions (PTM, feed rate, HA concentration and cutoff) allowing to maximize the permeate flow rate and the HA retention were selected from design of experiments methodology. The performances of purification by diafiltration (DF) in these conditions (yield, purity and productivity) were monitored. A method for predicting the performances according to the complex medium composition, based on the conventional mass balance equations and the DF permeate flow rate, was then proposed. This was done in order to facilitate the arrangement of the purification steps. In DF, the requirement of the pharmacopoeia in term of overall purity was obtained (> 95 %) but the proteins and nucleic acids levels were still above the threshold. This is why the adsorption of these molecules on activated carbon was studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength, pH and the type of activated carbon. The isotherm equations that better fitted the experimental data were selected and used combined to the equations of DF performances in order to find an appropriate chaining. Finally, the AH lyophilization and precipitation in organic solvent were compared. Both drying methods present less than 20 % moisture and preserve the properties of the molecule
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Nadia Oueslati. Conception et optimisation d'un procédé extrapolable de purification d'acides hyaluroniques produits par culture microbienne. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0191⟩. ⟨tel-01751135⟩

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