Effet des polluants de type hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur l'homéostasie lipidique et les récepteurs des lipoprotéines hépatiques

Abstract : Obesity is a multifactorial disorder that represents a significant risk factor for many pathologies including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent epidemiological studies suggest potential obesogenic effects of environmental contaminants, but little information is available on their potential effect on hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the common environmental pollutants, belonging to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HAP) on three lipoprotein receptors, the LDL-receptor (LDL-R), the scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1) and the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) as well as the ATP binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1) using cell and/or animal models. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence in vitro studies revealed that exposure of Hepa1-6 to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) significantly decreased LSR, LDL-R and ABCA1 protein levels, whereas no significant changes in protein levels and LSR activity where observed upon cell treatment with pyrene or phenanthrene. Real-time PCR analysis, lactacystin and chloroquine studies revealed that this effect was due primarily to increased proteasome-mediated degradation rather than to decreased transcription or to increased lysosomal degradation. Furthermore, ligand blots revealed that lipoproteins exposed to B[a]P displayed markedly decreased binding to LSR or LDL-R. C57Bl/6RJ mice were treated with B[a]P (0.5 mg/kg, i.p) every 48 h for 15 days. The increased weight gain observed was accompanied by increased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels, increased liver cholesterol content, and decreased LDL-R, ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-B1 protein levels in B[a]P-treated animals as compared to controls. Correlations observed between hepatic LSR and LDL-R levels in control mice were no longer observed in B[a]P treated mice, suggesting a potential dysregulation of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism.Taken together, these results suggest that B[a]P-induced weight gain may be due its inhibitory action on LSR and LDL-R, as well as ABCA1 and lipoprotein metabolism in the liver, which leads to the modified lipid status in B[a]P-treated mice, thus providing new insight into mechanisms underlying the involvement of pollutants such as B[a]P in the disruption of lipid homeostasis, potentially contributing to dyslipidemia associated with obesity
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Hamed Layeghkhavidaki. Effet des polluants de type hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur l'homéostasie lipidique et les récepteurs des lipoprotéines hépatiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0120⟩. ⟨tel-01751184⟩

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