Étude expérimentale et théorique de la transestérification des huiles végétales par catalyse hétérogène : approche muti-étagée du procédé de synthèse du biodiesel

Abstract : The conversions of chemical equilibriums are often enhanced through the use of an excess of reactant. An example is the heterogeneously catalyzed biodiesel synthesis, a reaction that is limited by its thermodynamics as well as chemical and physical phenomena, and which is usually carried out with an excess of methanol, leading to high separation costs. The experimental and theoretical study of the system of vegetable oils transesterification on a zinc aluminate catalyst enables us to precisely determine the limiting phenomena occurring during biodiesel synthesis as well as to understand the effects of an excess of methanol on the system. Limitations are identified in the kinetics and thermodynamics of the system as well as in the diffusion inside the catalyst particles. The study also enables us to determine the kinetic rate law, its parameters and the diffusion coefficients of the species. An equilibrium shifting technique of reactant staging on a series of reactors is studied in order to reduce the excess of reactant needed. Even though promising in specific cases, it cannot be applied for the considered system. Finally a numerical simulation of the Esterfip-H process of biodiesel synthesis is conducted, using a heterogeneous model of reactors and a thermodynamics model to simulate the separation steps. The optimization of this model enables us to reduce the energy consumption of the process as well as to reduce the methanol excess that is needed while conserving the current process configuration
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Florent Allain. Étude expérimentale et théorique de la transestérification des huiles végétales par catalyse hétérogène : approche muti-étagée du procédé de synthèse du biodiesel. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0213⟩. ⟨tel-01751190⟩

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