Évaluation de la qualité de l’eau du bassin supérieur de la rivière du Litani, Liban : approche hydrogéochimique

Abstract : Lebanon has abundant water, but its river is polluted. The Litani River is the largest one, draining from north to south in the central core of the country (Bekaa Valley) before turning west to the sea. It crosses down a rather deep valley and passes by several urban agglomerations and industrial zones, which use its water as a discharge system of their waste. This study shows the impact of the anthropic activities on the water quality of this river. Physical (pH, T°, TDS, Ec), chemical (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl?, SO2?4, NH3+, NO?3, PO2?4, K+, BOD5 and COD), heavy metals (Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Al, Ba, Pb, Mn) and microbiological parameters of water quality assessment and sediment for the Upper Litani River Basin was performed. They were investigated during three seasons of rainy, mid-rainy spring and wet season, during the years 2010-2013 to determine correlation between chosen chemical water parameters and bottom sediments parameters. Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses are performed in accordance International methods (e.g. European Standard Methods, WHO). In addition, Multivariate statistical methods (Hierarchical Clustering Analysis: HCA, and Principal Component Analysis: PCA) and Pearson’s correlation were applied to figure out the influence of pollutants disposal in the Lake and the River as well. Sediments were characterized by a set of chemical analyses, cations exchange capacity, mineralogical X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To assess metal contamination in sediments, Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines of Wisconsin (CBSQG) were applied. The metals contamination in the sediments was also evaluated by contamination factor (Cf), and the results showed that the effect of seasonal variations was important in the Upper Litani River Basin and the degree of contamination was increased in dry season. All the sites are characterized by moderate to highly microbial polluted range and some site was highly polluted and contaminated
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Chaden Moussa Haidar. Évaluation de la qualité de l’eau du bassin supérieur de la rivière du Litani, Liban : approche hydrogéochimique. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0295⟩. ⟨tel-01751389⟩

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