Prise en compte des sollicitations thermiques sur les comportements instantané et différé des géomatériaux

Abstract : The effect of temperature on the behaviour of geomaterials is a crucial issue in geotechnical and underground engineering. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of rocks and soils contains many applications in the fields of high-level nuclear waste disposal, heat storage, geothermal structures, petroleum drilling, zones around buried high-voltage cables, bituminous materials, and geological research. In the context of nuclear waste disposal at great depths, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay, Opalinus clay, Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and Äspö diorite has recently received special attention in Europe. Research in these areas has demonstrated that rocks and soils may suffer from changes in their mechanical properties during short-to long-term exposure to an elevated temperature. These changes include effects on the friction angle, permeability/porosity, elastic moduli, shear strength, dilatancy, softening, brittle-to-ductile transition, creep, etc... Since Prager's first works on the modelling of non-isothermal plastic deformation, many constitutive models have been developed to include these phenomena in computational inelasticity. Most models generalize the critical-state model to include the effects of temperature on the short-term behaviour of clays and rocks. However, the effect of time on the thermo-mechanical behaviour is often not coupled to the rate-independent plasticity even if the long-term behaviour appears essential for ensuring the safety and stability during the design and construction analysis in many fields, such as the storage of nuclear waste and more generally underground excavations. Thus, it appears important to combine both instantaneous and delayed thermo-mechanical effects to obtain appropriate constitutive equations to model such problems. In this Ph.D thesis, a unified thermo-plastic/viscoplastic constitutive model has been developed for this purpose. This model is a straightforward extension of the unified elasto-plastic/viscoplastic L&K constitutive model which was developed in previous Ph.D works. The updated thermo-mechanical model includes the evolutions of the two yield limits and the fluidity coefficient with temperature. The model was validated under several thermo-mechanical conditions on clayey rocks. The typical features of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of geomaterials were well reproduced. The numerical predictions of the triaxial compression tests and creep tests clearly indicate that the model can predict the overall behaviour of geomaterials under deviatoric and non-isothermal stress paths
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Simon Raude. Prise en compte des sollicitations thermiques sur les comportements instantané et différé des géomatériaux. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0028⟩. ⟨tel-01751476⟩

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