La protection des droits de l'enfant pendant les conflits armés en droit international

Abstract : The protection of children rights victim of the armed conflicts is a recent and current problem which leans on the evolution of human rights and on the transformation of the nature of the conflicts. It raises the question of the existence of a substantial international normative frame, capable of assuring protection and assistance to the child in the grip of hostilities. On this point, it seems that the international law plans a set of legal mechanisms applicable to the child, whether he is direct or indirect victim of the conflicts, or that he participates directly in the hostilities. However, the examination of these instruments shows that they are often characterized by the generality of their measures which are not still adapted to the consideration of the specificity of the child. Furthermore, they sometimes raise questions of applicability. So, if we cannot deny them any effectiveness, this one remains partial in many cases. The adoption of legal mechanisms specifically applicable to the child, as the Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 and its optional protocols, had moreover for object to remedy this maladjustment and to establish the exhaustiveness of the legal framework. The obstinacy of the violations makes, however, normative inadequacies become aware and impose a redefining of the objective of protection. In this context, the growing implication of the Security Council, but also the criminalization of the violations committed during the armed conflicts, define a new approach of the responsibility of the international community on the subject. This intervention allowed, indeed, to remind to States their obligations and to adopt penalties against individuals offenders. Also, the condemnations pronounced by the International Criminal Court and the Special Court for the Sierra Leone for war crimes consisting in the recruitment and in the use of children soldiers mark the end of a denial of justice. However, the action of these jurisdictions is sometimes hindered by the complexity of rules governing the international justice or the lack of cooperation of States. Thus, an international frame object of all the contradictions emerges from it, where from the relativity of the system of protection. This puts the necessity of insisting on the first responsibility which falls to States in this domain.
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Ameth Fadel Kane. La protection des droits de l'enfant pendant les conflits armés en droit international. Droit. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0122⟩. ⟨tel-01751484⟩

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