Une nouvelle approche thérapeutique de l'insuffisance cardiaque ischémique associant l'assistance biologique et l'assistance mécanique

Abstract : Heart failure (HF) represents one of the most frequent disease requiring hospitalization in the old population (>65 years old). The 5-year survival rates associated with heart failure are less than 50% and it results in a huge cost on social economy and public health. Ischemic heart diseases represent one of the most frequent etiologies of the heart failure. Over the last fifteen years, many preclinical and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic potential of stem cells to improve heart function and reduce ventricular remodeling. The failure of cell therapy can be ascribed to some extent to the poor integration and compromised survival of grafted cells in an unfavorable microenvironment in infarcted tissue which is complicated by the presence of inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and severe deprivation of nutriments. Furthermore, bone marrow stem cells are physiologically located in a hypoxic environment. The adaptation of the in vitro culture medium, in terms of oxygen concentration, to the in vivo natural niche as well as the targeted area, might be one of solutions to improve the efficacy of cell therapy. One of our studies has demonstrated that preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with hypoxia could promote cell proliferation without altering the differentiation potential. What’s more, our in vivo study showed that hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs, compared with those cultured in normoxia, presented with better therapeutic efficiency, such as improvement of the myocardial viability in the infarcted area, increase of intrinsic contractility and favoring the processes of angiogenesis. The recovery of cardiac function with ventricular assist devices (bridge to recovery) is a milestone in the treatment of heart failure. The phenomenon "bridge to recovery" has enabled us to deepen the knowledge on the physiopathology of ventricular remodeling, which was considered to be a one-way process. However, the strategy of ‘Bridge to Recovery’ causes many controversies. One of the arisen questions is if there exists a limit in terms of the duration and intensity regarding the mechanical unloading in order to minimize its secondary complications. To simulate ventricular mechanical unloading of different intensities, we have developed two models of heterotopic heart transplantation (TCH), namely, heterotopic heart transplantation (HHT) and heterotopic heart-lung transplantation to simulate complete and partial unloading, respectively. Our study revealed that mechanical unloading resulted in myocardial atrophy, cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. These secondary effects were dependent on the intensity of unloading. Our work fits into the general theme of the laboratory, which is to develop a research program on innovative therapeutic approaches to treat myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. In the first part of our study, we sought to clarify the effects of bone marrow-derived MSCs following intramyocardial injection on the perfusion and function of the infarcted myocardium (study 1). We then investigated the impact of long-term hypoxic culture on the biological characteristics and therapeutic potential of MSCs (study 2). Finally, we explored the effects of mechanical unloading of different intensities on the structure, function and metabolism of healthy myocardium (Study 3)
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Yihua Liu. Une nouvelle approche thérapeutique de l'insuffisance cardiaque ischémique associant l'assistance biologique et l'assistance mécanique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0072⟩. ⟨tel-01751705⟩

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