Nouvelles approches biotechnologiques pour l’obtention d’alcaloïdes : culture in vitro de Leucojum aestivum L. et isolement d’endophytes bactériens d’Amaryllidaceae

Abstract : Over 300 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids possessing a wide range of biological activities have been isolated from plants belonging to this family. Galanthamine, used for the palliative treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, is the only one commercialized. The biodisponiblity of these alkaloids is low. In vitro culture offers an alternative yet interesting approach for the biotechnological production of these valuable alkaloids. The aim of this work was, first, to develop a fast, efficient and easy purification method of plant extracts prior to their phytochemical analysis both in LCMS and GCMS. Second, the combined effects of bioreactor RITA® culture and feeding with different exogenous factors on the biosynthetic pathway of both galanthamine and lycorine were studied. The experiments were conducted both with Leucojum aestivum and L. aestivum ‘Gravety Giant’ bulblets. The variation of several exogenous parameters resulted in a better accumulation of galanthamine and lycorine (0.814 mg/g and 1.54 mg/g dry weight respectively) in the bulblets. The third aim was to isolate and identify alkaloid producing endophytes from in vivo and in vitro bulbs of three Amaryllidaceae species (L. aestivum, Narcissus pseudonarcissus and Galanthus elwesii). Bacterial endophtes belonging to the Bacillus genus were identified. A new alkaloid was isolated from bacterial liquid cultures
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Sahar Saliba. Nouvelles approches biotechnologiques pour l’obtention d’alcaloïdes : culture in vitro de Leucojum aestivum L. et isolement d’endophytes bactériens d’Amaryllidaceae. Cristallographie. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0107⟩. ⟨tel-01751802⟩

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