Contribution à la reconstruction 3D de bâtiments à partir de nuage de points de scanner laser terrestre

Abstract : The renovation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of existing housing stock is one of big challenges identified for coming decades. In front of this imperative, timber based elements for building renovation are more and more used due to their substantial improvement of the building insulation, aesthetic renewal and functional additions. However, this technology faces some difficulties, one of them is the improvement of the renovation projects automation, which is bound to the knowledge of the existing built geometry. The plans representing the existing state of the building are not always available, and if so, they may be not exact, because the modifications made on the building are usually undocumented. After a literature review of existing methods which are detailed the first chapter. The work within the framework of cooperation between the CRITTBois and CRAN have allowed to develop an automatic method for 3D building CAD model reconstruction from point clouds acquired by a terrestrial LASER scanner. The proposed method is composed of three main phases. The first one detailed in the second chapter, consists in segmenting the point cloud into planar patches representing the building facades. To decrease the segmentation algorithm complexity, the colorimetric information is also considered. The approach consists in making a colorimetric classification of the point cloud in a first step, then a geometrical segmentation of the point cloud using a robust segmentation algorithm (RANSAC). The third chapter presents the second phase of our approach consists in surface sampling steps modeling and boundary point extraction. Here, we consider a local threshold defined according to the approximated surface sampling steps. The aim of considering local threshold is to improve the reliability of the boundary point extraction algorithm and approximating the CAD model error. The last chapter presents the main three steps of the boundary model reconstruction method. The first step consists in classifying the regions defined by their boundary points into three types of regions: Irregularity Region (IR), Architectural Element Region (AER) as windows, and Facades Regions (FR) which represent the building facades defined by their outer boundaries. The second step consists in modeling these regions considering a Delaunay triangulation for the IR and a polyhedral model for the AER and the FR. The third step consists in making an approximation of the error in the model. The method reliability tests were conducted on real projects; they were performed by industrial construction and renovation professionals. The tests show that the quality of the 3D reconstruction remains strongly dependent to the acquisition factors and the scanned surface properties. Also, the approximation of the modeling error can predict in advance the errors on the CAD model.
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Abdelhamid Bennis. Contribution à la reconstruction 3D de bâtiments à partir de nuage de points de scanner laser terrestre. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0139⟩. ⟨tel-01751968⟩

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