Phytochemical study, cytotoxic and antibacterial potentialities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants from Sudan

Abstract : This study investigated, for the first time, the endophytic fungi flora of five Sudanese medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Ait.), Catharanthus roseus (L.), Euphorbia prostrata (Ait.), Trigonella foenum-graecum (L.) and Vernonia amygdalina (Del.). A total of 23 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the plants after surface disinfection and different biological tests were performed. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate crude extracts of 21 endophytes and their host plants were estimated using respectively the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging in vitro method. General evaluation of the cytotoxicity of 16 selected endophytes and their host plants was performed by the MTT assay using cancer cells type: Human breast carcinoma (MCF7) and Colon adenocarcinoma (HT29 and HCT116). Preliminary antibacterial screening was done for the 16 endophytes. These extracts were also tested against two representative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, by broth dilution tests. The endophyte, Aspergillus terreus 1 from T. foenum-graecum seeds had the highest TPC in term of Gallic Acid Equivalent (89.9 ± 7.1 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity (IC50: 18±0.1µg/mL). Byssochlamys spectabilis showed strong cytotoxicity (1.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL) followed by Cladosporium cladosporioides 2 (10.5 ± 1.5 µg/mL), then Alternaria sp. (13.5 ± 1.8 µg/mL). Only six strains showed activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with MIC values ranging between 0.125-2 mg/mL, Alternaria alternata (0.125 mg/mL) Alternaria sp. (0.250 mg/mL) and Byssochlamys spectabilis values (0.5 mg/mL). Ten pure compounds (0.3 to 40 mg) were isolated from ethyl acetate crude extract of Curvularia papendorfii .The new pure compound (AFB) 3,7,11,15-Tetrahydroxy-18-hydroxymethyl-14,16,20,22,24-pentamethyl-hexacosa-4E,8E,12E,16,18-pentaenoic acid (Khartoumic acid) revealed moderate antibacterial activity against S. aureus with MIC value 62.5 µg/mL and weak cytotoxicity with a IC50 > 100 µM against MCF7 cells. The pure compound AF1 showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 value of 29.78 µM against HT29 and weak antibacterial activity with MIC 250 µg/mL against S. aureus. Both compounds displayed no antioxidant activity.
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Afra Khiralla. Phytochemical study, cytotoxic and antibacterial potentialities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants from Sudan. Other. Université de Lorraine, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0159⟩. ⟨tel-01752032⟩

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