Chlordécone et filières animales antillaises : de la distribution tissulaire aux stratégies de décontamination chez les ruminants

Abstract : Chlordecone (CLD) is a toxic molecule which (i) contaminates more than 15% of agricultural land in Guadeloupe and Martinique islands, (ii) resists to biotic and abiotic degradation, (iii) accumulates along the food chain and whose the disappearance by soil leaching is estimated at several hundred years. The contamination of livestock in polluted areas is a health, social and economic issue. A literature review on CLD revealed a crying lack of information on its behavior in livestock’s organism and currently, there are less than ten studies which deal with livestock’s decontamination. Two experimental protocols were developed to characterize the behavior of CLD in ruminants’ organism and to evaluate methods that can optimize the decontamination processes of these animals. Results showed that all animals have eliminated more than 70% of Chlordecone in 3 to 4 weeks and neither the initial kids’ body fatness nor the addition of activated carbon or the addition of paraffin oil in the diet during the decontamination period altered these rates of excretion. Following these studies, the lipophilic behavior of CLD in animals is, also, questioned because the results showed that the concentrations of this pollutant, expressed on the fat matter basis, were higher in the liver and the muscles than in the peri-renal fat. These results raised new questions: firstly, on the mechanisms which control the CLD tissue distribution and secondly, on the role of the CLD metabolism and its interaction with the entero-hepatic cycle. The understanding of these processes should help to better adjust the decontamination strategies in order to make them more efficient
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Marie-Laure Lastel. Chlordécone et filières animales antillaises : de la distribution tissulaire aux stratégies de décontamination chez les ruminants. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0264⟩. ⟨tel-01752201⟩

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