Étude des voies de valorisation des déchets ménagers au Bénin : cas de la ville d’Abomey-Calavi

Abstract : Generaly in West Africa, the waste management is a priority problem mainly for the cities which welcome a growing population. It is the case of the city of Abomey-Calavi, that has no organized system of waste management. To allow an optimized management of waste, an overall policy based on tangible and demonstrated elements must be implemented. It is so essential to analyze the problem and its characteristics, to test various envisaged solutions, and to optimize the viable systems. The objective of this study is to provied solutions for the waste treatment of Abomey-Calavi. It is so a question of studying the problem, since the characterization of waste until the proposal of appropriate solutions and the conditions of their implementation. The methods tested in this study are based on thermochemical ways (Pyrolysis, Combustion and Gasification). The heterogeneous nature of waste does not allow their study in laboratory (more expensive and not representative). Thus, a model waste (MW: wood 88 %, Cardboard 7 %; Plastic 5 %) was established and based on the typological characterization of the waste of the city and the chemical assumptions. The study of the pyrolysis was realized in two parts. Slow pyrolysis in TGA and fast pyrolysis. TGA shows that the fast pyrolysis of the model waste can be made only at temperatures above 500°C. In the continuity of the results obtained in pyrolysis, a study of air gasification was made on the wood and the model waste at temperature of 800°C in a fluidized bed reactor. The tests allowed to observe that the results on these two types of fuels are very close. A simple model for the production of gas, condensable and of char during the gasification in fluidized bed was developed. The study of the combustion of MW in the boiler of LERMAB shows that the combustion is better when it is made in a reactor of high power. Compared with the results obtained on the wood, the combustion of the combustible mixture (MW) in the boiler does not present negative effects. These results seem very interesting for the choice of a better way of thermochemical treatment of the waste of the city of Abomey-Calavi. Finally, a waste management chain of HSW of the city of Abomey-Calavi is proposed in three parts and based on a mixed biological – thermochemical process preceded by the sorting
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Melhyas Kple. Étude des voies de valorisation des déchets ménagers au Bénin : cas de la ville d’Abomey-Calavi. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0288⟩. ⟨tel-01752222⟩

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