Effets (sub)individuels et fonctionnels des nanoparticules manufacturées sur des Crustacés Gammaridae

Abstract : Products incorporating nanoparticles are now ubiquitous in our everyday life. For example, sunscreens, fuel additives or food packaging materials contain nanoparticles which could be released in the aquatic environment during the entire life cycle of the nanoproduct, from its production to its use and aging. Therefore an increase of nanoparticle emissions in the aquatic ecosystems needs to be considered and raises the question about their potential effects on living organisms. The collaborative program ANR P2N – MESONNET (2011- 2015) was focused on the evaluation of the nanoparticle fate (transfer and transformation in media and living organisms) and on their ecotoxicity. The present work took part in this assessment by studying the effects of nanoparticles of silver, titanium and carbon (nanotube) on the Crustaceans Amphipod Gammarus sp.. The experimental approach was designed to assess, in laboratory conditions, the effect of nanoparticles on the gammarids, focusing on biomarker measurements at the (sub)individual level (cellular, physiological, behavioral) and on some parameters related to their functional roles. Experiments were designed as close as possible to natural conditions using environmentally realistic contamination scenario: exposure in a complex media (natural water from river) to low nanoparticle concentrations and with food. In this context, the effects of nAg were investigated in three gammarids species and results revealed a higher sensibility of G. roeseli, for which exposure induced a decrease of the locomotor activity and of the production of fine particles of organic matter (FPOM). At the physiological level, an increase of the oxygen consumption was observed in gammarids exposed to nAg, despite a stability observed for the studied markers of energetic metabolism. The oxygen consumption was correlated with the silver concentration measured in the organisms, and also with the tested nanoparticle sizes. The influence of the nanoparticle forms (nAg: plate triangular and spherical; nTiO2: cubic and rod-shaped) and of the organic matter (CNT) was studied in mesocosms by focusing mainly on cellular indicators (energetic storage, antioxidant response, damage…) and individual ones (osmoregulation, ventilation and locomotion). The obtained results suggest form-dependent effects of nanoparticles. This work shows the interest of a coupled approach using ecological and ecotoxicological endpoints to better understand the effects of nanoparticles on freshwater ecosystems
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Jennifer Andreï. Effets (sub)individuels et fonctionnels des nanoparticules manufacturées sur des Crustacés Gammaridae. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0313⟩. ⟨tel-01752274⟩

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