Exploration de nouvelles voies pour l'ignifugation des polymères

Abstract : In this study, we have tried to develop new formulations to improve the thermal stability and fire behavior of three polymer matrices widely used: the polyethylene (PE), the polystyrene (PS) and the polyamide 66 (PA 66). The intumescent system used consists to combine a classical flame retardants (ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and pentaeryhthritol (PER)) with a small amount of nanooxides whose properties can be adjusted in order to improve the compatibility of the melting mixture, or to change the degradation mechanism by a chemical (catalytic effect) or physical (insulating layer, viscosity, etc …) process. The total amount of additives has been set at 25wt%. An important part of this study was consecrated to the synthesis of oxides with different morphologies, porosities, structures and functionalities. In this regard, the mesoporous silica has an advantage of having a high surface area (700-1400 m²/g) and a pore size compatible with the polymer chains. By adapting the synthesis conditions, we have aimed to correlate between some parameters related to the prepared silicas (such as (1) the specific surface area (2) particle size (3) pore size (4) morphology and (5) the type of structure (usually SBA-15)) on the thermal stability and fire behavior of different polymer matrices. A comprehensive study has been conducted globally, regardless of the matrix, that the improvements provided by the mesostructured silicas are modest compared to those elicited by classical FR. However, the fire behavior has been improved (particularly LOI) by combining APP/PER system with 1-2wt% of SBA-15. The surface modification of SBA-15 by grafting a different organic functions (CTAB, amine, thiol, phenol, phosphonate, benzoic acid and diphenylphosphate), inorganic species (aluminum, phosphoric acid and tungstophosphoric acid) or metals (copper, nickel) have been the subject of an advanced characterizations in order to assess the amount and the thermal stability of the grafted species, well as the nature of the surface bonds. Other types of synthetic nanooxides (aluminophosphates, zirconium phosphate and titanate nanotubes) or commercial (CeO2, ZrO2, CeZr and CePr) have been also studied. Most of these particles in combination with APP/PER system have shown a slightly positive effect on the thermal stability and fire behavior of polymers. In mechanistic terms, the nanooxides have mainly an effect on enhancing the barrier effect. The analyses carried out by Py/GC/MS showed that the grafted oxides by acidic species catalyze the conversion of alkenes and dienes (resulting from the decomposition of PE) to aromatics. In the presence of SBA-15, the analysis of char (by XRD and FTIR) shows the formation of new crystalline phases which enhance the protective layer.
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Mohamad Matar. Exploration de nouvelles voies pour l'ignifugation des polymères. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0067⟩. ⟨tel-01752356⟩

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