Identification des micro-mécanismes de déformation du PET amorphe et semi-cristallin in situ au cours d’un essai mécanique

Abstract : According to their formulations and forming processes and thanks to the complexity of their induced microstructure, thermoplastic polymers show a wide range of thermomechanical properties. However, the identification of the evolution of the microstructure of these materials during their use remains difficult. To better understand the microstructural changes occurring during thermomechanical loadings, various in situ and non-destructive techniques of characterization have been used. In this context, a Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) amorphous and semi-crystalline was studied in order to highlight the effect of the microstructure on the macroscopic properties of the material. This way, different coupling systems combining several experimental characterization techniques have been implemented such as Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction/scattering coupled to the VidéoTraction™ system or Raman spectroscopy coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the characterization of the deformation micro-mechanisms and the thermal behavior of the material respectively. Monitoring specific vibrational bands thoroughly identified allowed the establishment of a new robust criterion which enables to accurately measure the crystallinity ratio of the material and the identification of the characteristic temperatures of its morphology (Tg, Tc, Tcc, Tm). In addition, a relaxational characterization system by coupling dynamic dielectric spectroscopy to a tensile test has been used in order to highlight the effect of molecular mobility on the elasto-visco-plastic deformation of PET. From a mechanical point of view, the main deformation micro-mechanisms have been studied in real time during a tensile test at different temperatures and constant true strain rates: macromolecular orientation, volume damage, development of mesophase and strain induced crystallization were observed and quantified in situ using the coupled characterization technics presented previously at Petra III (Hambourg) and Elettra (Trieste) synchrotrons. In parallel, a study of the molecular mobility (a determining parameter for the predominance of one deformation micromechanism to another) was conducted via relaxational analysis performed during the deformation of the material. In addition to in situ experiments, post mortem analysis by the previously mentioned technics and by X radiography, scanning electron microscopy and X tomography were performed to assess the influence of the mechanical relaxation of the polymer.
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Khaoula Ben Hafsia. Identification des micro-mécanismes de déformation du PET amorphe et semi-cristallin in situ au cours d’un essai mécanique. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0081⟩. ⟨tel-01752357⟩

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