Toxicité et effets sur le développement d'Hydra attenuata des polluants hydriques et nonylphénol (NP)

Abstract : This research aimed at studying the mechanisms of toxicity of pollutants and their developmental effects. We chose Hydra attenuata as a model, because of its capacity of regeneration, which will be used to detect the disturbing properties and the developmental effects of chemicals. In addition, hydra had been already successfully employed to study teratogenicity of various substances (Johnson et al., 1982). We studied sensitivity in hydra towards 47 substances (endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical products, pesticides, etc.). This first approach allowed us to bring to the fore the strong toxicity of NP in adult (LC50-9631 = 100 pg/Lkand in embryo (LOEC-96h =20 pg/L). NT is an endocrine disruptor (ED). This kind of pollutants are preoccupying because they affect the mechanisms of reproduction or development of animal and human populations. The toxicity degree and the environmental impact of the known ED are not completely elucidated, and it remains to identify the pollutants which would present these potentialities. In this context, the hydra seems to be an interesting model. (i) We showed that NP induced apoptosis in hydra exposed during a short period (lh) at lethal concentrations (ii) abnormalities in embryos exposed during 8d to low NI' concentrations, (iii) interest to extend the regeneration assay beyond 96h. In all cases, the results obtained demonstrated that hydra is a good model to study toxicity of the pollutant and 1 their developmental effects.
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Sophie Pachura-Bouchet. Toxicité et effets sur le développement d'Hydra attenuata des polluants hydriques et nonylphénol (NP). Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2005. Français. ⟨NNT : 2005METZ020S⟩. ⟨tel-01752396⟩

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