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Compréhension et modélisation des relations entre les caractéristiques biologiques et écologiques et la sensibilité aux contaminants des communautés d'invertébrés benthiques : perspectives pour l'évaluation des effets des substances chimiques

Abstract : We sought to improve the ecological relevance of the existing effect assessment methods for benthic invertebrate communities. We have thus developed a method, which permits to build test batteries that are representative of the functioning of natural communities. It is based on the statistical analysis of the combinations of 22 biological and ecological traits for 479 western European invertebrate species. We used this method in order to build a test battery that represents the functioning of benthic communities that inhabit fine sediments of lowland rivers and lakes in Western Europe. This battery gathers five species: Chironomus riparius, Valvata piscinalis, Branchiura sowerbyi, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sericostoma personatum. We have then sought to characterize the biological response to zinc of lab populations for C. riparius, V. piscinalis and B. sowerbyi. For these species, we developed handling and breeding methods and described their life cycle at the lab in clean sediments. Then, we ran toxicity tests to characterize the effects of zinc on individual survival, growth and reproduction. Test data were first analyzed at the individual level using mechanistic models based on the perturbation of energy budgets by the toxicant. On the basis of both the data from toxicity tests and the effects models, we estimated the effects of zinc at the population level using matrix population models. Finally, we used population level results to derive a no effect concentration for the benthic community. The study of population effects of zinc on C. riparius, V. piscinalis and B. sowerbyi allowed us to estimate (at the lab) a no effect concentration for the benthic community, which is reliable when compared to field results. The validation and the adaptation the methods we used for routine effect assessment of chemicals represents the major prospects of our work.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 1:45:32 PM
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Virginie Ducrot. Compréhension et modélisation des relations entre les caractéristiques biologiques et écologiques et la sensibilité aux contaminants des communautés d'invertébrés benthiques : perspectives pour l'évaluation des effets des substances chimiques. Toxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2005. Français. ⟨NNT : 2005METZ013S⟩. ⟨tel-01752413⟩

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