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Approche critique de l'idée de fondement : réflexions épistémologiques contemporaines

Abstract : Our inquiry tries examine the possibility of an ultimate foundation of the human knowledge. Therefore we evaluate several contributions to this aspect, which are in their great majority defending specific ways of foundation. This exposition of these different approaches is organized according to a methodological subdivision into conceptueal fields. In fact, each approach is characterized by the predominance of a certain category of concepts. The prevalence of a determinate conceptual category then constitutes the starting-point for the development of thr respective point of view. We have distinguished between five differnt conceptual areas, a logical and epistemic one, an area turning around the notion of subjectivity, an ethical and intersubjective area, a linguistic and semantic area and finally an ontological field, occurring recurrently but rather in a hidden way. By analyzing some representatives of different types of foundation, that we have respectively assigned to the conceptual fields mentioned adove, (for example Descartes for the conceptual area of subjectivity or Bolzano for the logical and epistemological field), we realize, during the course of the investigations, that the evaluated types of foundation contain interesting elements but the same time collectively comprise a deficiency. By reconducting the nature of knowledge to a definite conceptual terminology (the logical laws , the subjectivity, the a priori of argumentation, the language...), the authors in question omit or neglect the pressuposed presence and use of other elements wihch are attributable to other conceptual fields. This repeated ascertainment leads us to the recognitin that foundation as a unilateral attempt to reduce the totality of knowledge to a unique source or base is an impossible task. Though we believe in the reliability of our knowledge and reject any skeptical and relativistic outgrowths, we think that the nature foundation has be considered in a different way. Foundation has to be conceived from a holistic perpective, because one aspect of our knowledge and cognition supports the other and inversely. We should consider foundation as the insight that wz are embedded in an irrepressible background dominated by relations of interpependence and mutuality. Thinking foundation implies getting aware of our entranglement in a global network or web.We should realize that the foundation of knowledge and cognition does not derive from the exclusivity of a determinated base, but rather from the complementarity of all kinds of conceptual fields.
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Henri Winckel. Approche critique de l'idée de fondement : réflexions épistémologiques contemporaines. Philosophie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2005. Français. ⟨NNT : 2005METZ004L⟩. ⟨tel-01752414⟩



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