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Conséquences d'un refroidissement climatique sur le comportement de radionucléides dans les sols du Barrois :

Abstract : aFor the safety assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal conducted by Andra, it is required to estimate the behaviour of radionuclides in soils for the next ten thousand years. Within this time scale, soils would probably evolve from their actual status, according to climate changes. It is then necessary to assess these changes in order to predict the behaviour of the radiochemicals that would enter the soils. We present a pedological forecast method for the assessment of a specific case (i.e. limestone plateau), undergoing periglacial conditions. Then we study the retention of mobile radionuclides, iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) on the forecast periglacial soils. The method relies on the study of analogous soils, sampled in regions with similar geochemical (calcareous) and topographical contexts but undergoing a cold climate which mimics future periglacial conditions of the reference region (steppe-tundra or boreal forest biomes). We have added to the cold and dry climatic series a cold and humid biome (montane strata). The organic matter compartment (OM), considered as an indicator of the effects of the climate on the soils, was thoroughly characterised and taken into account. The analogous soils sampled have developed under boreal forest, cold steppe and subalpine conditions from limestone or calcareous parent materials. The observed soils were eutric Leptosols under boreal forest, and Chernozems under cold steppe. In both biomes, under hydromorphic conditions, OM accumulated in the soil and was high in aromatic molecules in the humified fraction. In the montane strata, the leaching of carbonates was strong enough to allow a diversification of soil genesis: from humic Leptosols to dystric Luvisols. The OM of these soils was different from that of the soils from dry biomes. This study has confirmed that the main differences between soils were observed between the humid and cold climate (montane) on one side and the dry and cold (cold steppe and boreal) on the other. Evolution scenarios constructed from these results indicated that the periglacial conditions would probably favour the persistence of soils still similar to the present ones in the reference region, especially during the boreal stage. However these soils would display higher OM content. In this biome, soils would be mainly rendzic Leptosols and eutric (or calcaric) Cambisols as presently, but with a higher OM content in the surface horizon because of the forest cover. In the steppe-tundra biome, a pergelisol would favour hydromorphy in most soils (stagnic Cryosols). In both biomes, hydromorphic soils, developped on marly material could display very high OM content (fen). Maps summarising these scenarios have been edited for each biome. The consequences of these pedological changes on the behaviour of mobile radionuclides were studied through the retention of Tc and I in the analogous soils at field capacity in batch experiments. The experiment showed that the dehydration of soils could favour the retention of both elements under aerobic conditions, although the latter are not usually favourable to Tc and I retention (Kd > 1 in analogous soils of boreal forest after one year of contact time). These results were used to establish maps of the retention of each element for both periglacial biomes. It is suggested that Tc would be retained in the soils in the cold steppe soils whereas I would be more retained in soils of the boreal biome. In both biomes, soils with the highest retention towards I and Tc would be peaty soils located in the bottom of marly valleys. Special attention was paid therefore to peaty soils : we studied the behaviour of I in situ in a peat bog. I had accumulated at the bog surface (Kd was multiplied by 6 within 15 years) and was found to be associated to polyphenolic substances from the humified peat. Carex sp was identified as the species that accumulated the highest contents of I amongst the vegetation of the bog. The proposed method underlain by analogy and laboratory retention studies should help to understand and forecast the behaviour of the long-lived radionuclides. It should help in the determination of the site specific parameters for the dose computation of safety assessment in a cold biosphere scenario
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Sophie Maillant. Conséquences d'un refroidissement climatique sur le comportement de radionucléides dans les sols du Barrois :. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2005. Français. ⟨NNT : 2005INPL056N⟩. ⟨tel-01752512⟩



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