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Caractérisation de la colonisation spontanée par les plantes de sols pollués : rôle des systèmes cellulaires de détoxication

Abstract : We studied the revegetation of an industrial wasteland soil polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Different approaches were chosen in order to characterize the first steps of a plant succession and to elucidate the cellular mechanisms involved in plant metal tolerance. Experiments on plots filled with a soil collected from the former coke factory site of Neuves-Maisons (54, France) highlighted the importance of soil seed banks and seed rains in the establishment of a pioneer community on a polluted soil. The study of the plots flora allowed us to prove that the pioneer community, essentially composed of annuals and biannuals during the first year, was gradually colonized by perennials and clonal plants which dominated the second successionnal year. In addition, the comparison of communities established on control and polluted soil suggested a soil phytotoxicity leading to losses of species richness and diversity. Nevertheless, such differences seemed to decrease progressively during the succession process. At last, in the species that survived and grew in the polluted soil, leaf antioxidant enzymes responded, confirming their putative crucial role in the colonization success of these species. However, we showed that this success could also be due to a production of seeds more tolerant toward soil contaminants. Moreover, the study of transects in the industrial wasteland of Homecourt (54, France), a former coke factory site, gave supplementary data, highlighting the relationship between community descriptors (species richness, Shannon-Weaver s diversity indice) and soil Cd and Hg concentrations. Moreover, for the species present along the transects (Arrhenaterum elatius, Euphorbia cyparissias or Tanacetum vulgare), the measurements of antioxidants defences and phytochelatin levels revealed a metallic stress. Nevertheless, the abundance of the species was not related to soil pollutant concentrations. The possible environmental applications of these results will be also discussed
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Marc Dazy. Caractérisation de la colonisation spontanée par les plantes de sols pollués : rôle des systèmes cellulaires de détoxication. Ecotoxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008METZ027S⟩. ⟨tel-01752595⟩

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