Effets populationnels du chlordane sur les microcrustacés cladocères Daphnia sp. dans une perspective d'évaluation des risques

Abstract : This research aimed at studying the toxicity of chlordane in freshwater crustacean in order to evaluate the risk of this pesticide on aquatic organisms. We choice Daphnia magna as model of study, because her key role in trophic chain, her sensitivity and her short life cycle that are exploited for extended the classic reproduction test using only one healthy generation on two successive generations. In the chronic test (21d), a concentration without observed effect (NOEC) on all parameters of 0.18 g/L was obtained. The exposition of D.magna to the strong concentrations of chlordane led the malformations and the apparition of males at the progeny. The study of the bioacumulation showed the high potential of bioaccumulation at D.magna with a factor of bioaccumulation of 244 000 (dry weight) after 40 days of exposition to the NOEC. The study of the toxicity of the chlordane on two successive generations (F0 and F1) showed that this one increases with the concentration and the time of exposition. So, the F1 generation is more sensitive than the F0 generation and the population of the F1 generation 5th brood is more sensitive than the one of the F1 generation 2nd brood. The study of the recovery of the daphnids after their transfer in clean water showed their capacity to restore reproduction only for the low doses. The comparison of the sensitivity of D.magna in another crustacean C.dubia following a chronic exposition to chlordane underlined the interest of the use of C.dubia in the study of the log term toxicity of the persistent pollutants under the condition to prolong the duration of the test from 7 to 14 days.The present work highlights the interest of our model in the study of the chronic toxicity of persistent pollutants and their possible effects on the different processes of reproduction
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Rachid Manar. Effets populationnels du chlordane sur les microcrustacés cladocères Daphnia sp. dans une perspective d'évaluation des risques. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008METZ031S⟩. ⟨tel-01752598⟩

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