Relations "biodisponibilité-génotoxicité-écotoxicité" des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) dans les sols de friches industrielles

Abstract : The aim of this work research was to show in formerly-contaminated coking plant soils a relationship between the bioavailability of soil pollutants (PAH and/or heavy metals), their genotoxicity and their populational effects in the Eisenia fetida earthworm. This study showed that despite a similar contamination studied soils exhibited a great difference in ecotoxicity to earthworms and other terrestrial organisms (plants, springtails). Differences in ecotoxicity of soils would be attributable to bioavailability of soil pollutants which is different between soils. This study also showed that thermal desorption applied on one of the contaminated soils increased bioavailability of heavy metals. Thermal desorption would modify 1) the nature and composition of soil organic matter, 2) the speciation of heavy metals, 3) links between soil organic matter and heavy metals, rendering them more bioavailable and genotoxic to earthworms. The biological-ecotoxicological approach, which takes into consideration the bioavailability of soil pollutants, reveals to be necessary in addition of the physico-chemical approach in the evaluation of 1) risks and 2) remediation efficiency of contaminated soils. This study also showed that the measure of DNA damage in coelomocytes of earthworms is a relevant biomarker in the evaluation of genotoxicity of soil pollutants. This biomarker of genotoxicity can be used as indicator of bioavailability of soil pollutants. It revealed more sensitive than survival and as sensitive as reproduction, which are classical endpoints measured in earthworms. This biomarker of genotoxicity could be used as early indicator of physiological disturbances, even if the mechanistic link between DNA damage and effects on reproduction require further studies
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Marc Bernard Bonnard. Relations "biodisponibilité-génotoxicité-écotoxicité" des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) dans les sols de friches industrielles. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010METZ007S⟩. ⟨tel-01752743⟩

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