Lipides et maladie d'Alzheimer : influence du statut et de la signalisation lipidiques sur la neurodégénérescence induite par le peptide AB soluble

Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia characterised in the early stages by synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Currently, no effective treatments are available and the molecular mechanisms implicated are still unknown. Recent studies, including ours, indicate that the direct interaction between soluble amyloid-ß (Aß) oligomers and the plasma membrane initiates a cellular stress involving apoptotic cascades. The present work focuses on the impact of lipid status on neuronal susceptibility to the toxicity of soluble Aß peptide and on the pro-apoptotic signalling pathways. We showed that this peptide induces membrane remodelling, thereby activating pro-apoptotic pathways and inhibiting survival signalling, which leads to neuronal cell death. This was however prevented in neurons cultured in a medium supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. This protective effect seems to rely on subtle local membrane remodelling due to DHA incorporation, which maintains active survival and growth pathways. DHA did not prevent either cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) or oxidative stress upon soluble Aß peptide exposure. These two events have already been reported by our team to be implicated in a pro-apoptotic cascade leading to ceramide production due to the activation of sphingomyelinases. These enzymes very likely play a central role in Aß peptide toxicity, as pretreatments with DHA or sphingosine-1-phosphate, a well-known anti-apoptotic compound, lead to neuronal protection through the inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase. This PhD thesis demonstrates that lipids, as structural molecules as well as signalling mediators, are essential players that could be used to develop strategies for the prevention or treatment of AD
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Sabrina Bechard. Lipides et maladie d'Alzheimer : influence du statut et de la signalisation lipidiques sur la neurodégénérescence induite par le peptide AB soluble. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006INPL063N⟩. ⟨tel-01752762⟩

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