Extraction aqueuse d'huile de colza assistée par hydrolyse enzymatique : optimisation de la réaction, caractérisation de l'émulsion et étude de procédés de déstabilisation

Abstract : Consumer's concerns about the quality and environmental impact of the products as well as the industrial requirements regarding the risk assessment and the environmental and health repercussions of the solvent extraction of rapeseed oil using hexane led us to work on the optimisation of the aqueous enzymatic extraction of this oil. The study has been carried out to determine the best combination of enzymes able to achieve the disruption of the vegetal adipose tissue, and to characterize the emulsion obtained after centrifugation. The final objective was to maximize the yields of the oil extraction and to obtain adequate nutritional properties of the cake. After the physicochemical characterization of the rapeseed raw material, several proteases and polysaccharide hydrolases have been tested individually and in combination in order to optimize the removal of free oil and the emulsion oil yield occurring during the aqueous extraction process. The physicochemical properties of the emulsion have been determined: rheological properties, pH, conductivity, spectroscopy by Short Angles Light Scattering). Thereafter some physicochemical and thermo-mechanical treatments have been carried out to destabilize the oil-in-water emulsion obtained after the centrifugation, which contained a large part of the total oil of the reaction mixture. Three destabilization processes appeared particularly interesting to increase the free oil removal from the emulsion: talc addition before centrifugation, phase inversion by addition of exogenous oil in presence of NaCl in the aqueous phase, and freezing/thawing cycles. Finally, an optimisation trial of the freezing/thawing process using a Doehlert experimental design has been done as an example
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Sandrine Guillemin. Extraction aqueuse d'huile de colza assistée par hydrolyse enzymatique : optimisation de la réaction, caractérisation de l'émulsion et étude de procédés de déstabilisation. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006INPL073N⟩. ⟨tel-01752769⟩

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