Carnobacterium maltaromaticum : caractéristiques physiologiques et potentialités en technologie fromagère

Abstract : The C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 bacteria strain, isolated from soft cheese, was observed to possess non conventional lactic bacteria physiological properties. Its growth in TSB YE medium and milk was found to be characterised by the requirements for easily assimilated growth nutrients and a low kinetic rate of lactic acid production from glucose, lactose, fructose and sucrose. In addition, it was found to not metabolise galactose or not excrete it during the hydrolysis of lactose. In the process of milk fermentation, it not only took an unusually long duration but produced products of fragile texture. In order to eventually determine the behaviour of this strain in the process of cheese-making, a selective culture medium CM was developed using an experimental design and PCR techniques for its isolation and identification. The behaviour of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 was compared with that of two strains of lactic bacteria of technological interest namely Lc. lactis DSM 20481 and S. thermophilus INRA 302, within a wide temperature range (3 to 37°C) and of pH (5.2 ? 8.0). Tests carried out in co-culture associating this strain with Lc. lactis DSM 20481 or with S. thermophilus INRA 302 showed that the lactic acid production was due mainly to the growth of the traditional lactic strain. In the process, the C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 slow strain was observed not to be inhibited by acidification. The cheese-making potential of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 was evaluated in the process of two soft cheese manufactures. Inoculated at various levels of population, it was observed to be present at all manufacturing stages. Generally present at very weak concentrations in the starting milk, it becomes a dominant lactic flora following ripening and refrigeration storage. This technological aptitude is in relation with its psychrotrophic character and its ability to actively develop in alkaline medium. Its ?alimentarity?, tested by its ability to produce biogenic amines, showed zero or very low levels in tyramine and histamine, as in the case of S. thermophilus INRA 302 and Lc. lactis DSM 20481. The optimization of its malted flavour production capacity was carried out on a TSB-YE medium and on milk supplemented with leucine, isoleucine or valine. In this process the production of 3-méthylbutanal was observed to be the most abundant product while cheese containing high levels (108-109 ufc.g-1) of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 did not exhibit this flavour. This notwithstanding, the presence of this species of GRAS status in many French AOC and non AOC cheeses could be considered as an interesting auxiliary in cheese manufacturing process since it tends to slow down the aging process and thereby retard the development of unpleasant flavours. In this respect this strain of psychotrophic lactic bacteria could be retained as a flora for cheese ripening process
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Hélène Carole Edima. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum : caractéristiques physiologiques et potentialités en technologie fromagère. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007INPL056N⟩. ⟨tel-01752849⟩

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