Effets génotoxiques et systèmes de détoxication chez Vicia Faba (Fabaceae) dans le cadre de l'évaluation des sols pollués

Abstract : In the context of optimizing plant tests for polluted soil materials bioassessment, the objectives of this thesis were firstly the development of two genotoxicity tests on the secondary roots of a plant model, the broad bean Vicia faba. The first test was the micronucleus assay and gave promising results that lead to an international ISO standardizing process. The second test named comet assay and brought us less encouraging results because of problems with feasibility and precision. .To improve our knowledge about the consequences of micronuclei formation on plant life cycle, we studied life-history traits of beans developing from germination in a soil containing a sufficient quantity of genotoxic (cadmium, copper and maleic hydrazide) to induce micronuclei without provoking short-term (48h) growth retardation. The obtained results evoked a link between micronuclei presence after 48h and plant life cycle change or impairments.Besides, the micronucleus assay was applied among other assays or biomarkers to evaluate ecotoxicity of liquid or solid contaminated matrix. As part of the French Scientific Interest Group on Industrial Wasteland (GISFI), we evaluated the genotoxicity of soils polluted by a former coke-factory. Furthermore, we took part to the project ?Ecotoxicity of nanomaterial alteration byproducts?, also called Nanoalter. Our goal was to assess the potential hazards attached to the environmental degradation of titanium dioxide-containing sunscreen nanocomposites. Then, the tolerance mechanisms of plants towards chemicals were studied by phytochelatins and oxidative stress enzymes measurements.
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Anne-Sophie Foltete. Effets génotoxiques et systèmes de détoxication chez Vicia Faba (Fabaceae) dans le cadre de l'évaluation des sols pollués. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010METZ020S⟩. ⟨tel-01752919⟩

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