Comment persuader les automobilistes à respecter les limitations de vitesse : effets du cadrage et de la présence d'une image dans les messages de prévention routière.

Abstract : Message framing effects (positive vs. negative) of health appeals have rarely been studied on traffic safety issues whereas it has often been explored in public health issues. The messages these studies contain are often textual, sometimes audiovisual, but very few studies make a distinction between textual messages alone and textual messages accompanied by a picture. Most of the time, textual messages are quite long, sometimes requiring several minutes to be read. The objective of this doctoral work is to test message framing effects of short textual messages both with and without pictures aiming to make people comply with speed limitations. A message is considered positively framed when the information it delivers is formulated in terms of gain. On the contrary, a message is considered negatively framed when the information it contains is formulated in terms of loss. The results of studies aiming to test message framing effects are very contradictory, some suggesting that positively framed messages are more effective, other suggesting that negatively framed ones are more effective, and others are not able to find differences of persuasive effectiveness between positively and negatively framed messages. The theoretical explanations given in these studies are also very heterogeneous. For some, message framing effects depend on personal relevance to the message issue. For others, message framing effects depend on the type of behavior. Others showed that message framing effects depend on participant message elaboration. Finally, for others, message framing effects depend on both personal involvement and risk involvement. We conducted 5 studies (N = 914) where road safety messages (14 to 30 words) were presented to encourage people to respect speed limitations. These messages were presented in two studies conducted in laboratory situations among students and in three field studies among drivers sitting and waiting in their cars at the technical inspection. Our results suggest that negatively framed messages, compared to positively framed ones, are more effective in bringing people to perceive higher the risk of accidents due to high speed, to have more favorable attitudes related to traffic safety and to comply with speed limitations in the coming months. Our results were discussed, as well as the methodological limitations of our work and we finally provided opportunities for future studies.
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François d'Onghia. Comment persuader les automobilistes à respecter les limitations de vitesse : effets du cadrage et de la présence d'une image dans les messages de prévention routière.. Psychologie. Université Nancy 2, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009NAN21008⟩. ⟨tel-01752971⟩

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