Valorisation durable des laits de chèvre de la région du Nord Liban. Transformation en fromage "Darfiyeh" et établissement de caractéristiques physico-chimiques et microbiologiques en vue de la création d'une appellation d'origine

Abstract : In order to contribute for the preservation of the Lebanese dairy heritage, the aim of this study was to characterize Darfiyeh cheese, a traditional variety made from raw goats' milk and ripened in goat's skin. Parallel to this objective, and for a better understanding of Darfiyeh ripening, aroma transfer towards goat skin was conducted through an experimental device. Three independent batches of Darfiyeh production were analyzed after 20, 40 and 60 days of ripening. Physico-chemical results showed that Darfiyeh is a semi-hard goat's milk cheese which undergoes a moderate proteolysis and lipolysis. 3-methyl butanal, 1-phenyl ethanol and 1-octanol contribute to the distinctive aromatic fraction of Darfiyeh. As for microbiological results, bacterial counts (Log cfu.g-1 cheese) for mesophilic lactobacilli (7.1-10.4), thermophilic coccal-shaped lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (6.6-8.4) and thermophilic lactobacilli (5.5-7.2) were found. In order to explore Darfiyeh natural ecosystem, a combination of classical and molecular approaches was applied. Classical identification revealed members of the genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus. Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles revealed common bands between the classical identification. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) confirmed the presence of S. thermophilus, E. faecium, E. durans, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris. Real time PCR enabled quantification of S. thermophilus and E. faecium, with a detection threshold of 104 ufc.g-1 of Darfiyeh and a range of 107-109 ufc.g-1 of Darfiyeh, respectively. As for aroma transfer towards goat skin, absorption and permeability of three model aroma molecules (2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione, 2-butanol) in aqueous solution/goat skin system were followed, after 20, 40 and 60 days of exposure. Until 40 days, the transfer of aroma molecules was dependent on their physico-chemical properties and exposure time. After 60 days, the molecules migrate from the skin to the aqueous solution. Therefore, in such a simulated system, aromatic molecules seem to move under a cyclic way. This work is a first scientific and technical contribution to the preservation of traditional Lebanese cheesemaking
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Mireille Serhan. Valorisation durable des laits de chèvre de la région du Nord Liban. Transformation en fromage "Darfiyeh" et établissement de caractéristiques physico-chimiques et microbiologiques en vue de la création d'une appellation d'origine. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL073N⟩. ⟨tel-01753058⟩

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