Réponse biologique de cellules animales à des contraintes hydrodynamiques : simulation numérique, expérimentation et modélisation en bioréacteurs de laboratoire

Abstract : The global response of animal cells to hydrodynamic stress when cultivated in suspension in stirred tank reactors was studied. To do this, an integrative approach coupling biochemical engineering and fluid mechanics tools were used. First, the description of the global and local hydrodynamics of two bench-scale agitated reactors, a spinner flask and a bioreactor, was carried out. Then, macroscopic kinetics of CHO cells cultivated in a serum and protein-free medium were obtained at various agitation rates, in order to evaluate the impact of agitation on cellular growth and death, as well as substrates consumption and metabolites and recombining IFN-[gamma] production. IFN-[gamma] and cells physiological state were more precisely characterised by glycosylation, apoptosis state and intracellular proteins measurements. The effects of the agitation increase were represented by several global correlations that related: (i) in a medium containing Pluronic F68, the Integral of the Viable Cells Density to the Reynolds number, and the proportion of lysed cells with the average value of energy dissipation rate <[epsilon] (ii) in a medium without pluronic, specific cell growth and death rates to <[epsilon]. Moreover, CFD analysis of the stress distribution indicated that the cellular lysis observed in the bioreactor at the highest agitation rate, would be related to very high local values of [epsilon], and to the exposure frequency of the cells in these energetic zones. An original hydro-kinetic model based on the intermittency of turbulence and coupling the local hydrodynamics with cell growth and death kinetics, allowed the prediction of the massive cell lysis observed in the bioreactor under some mixing conditions. To decouple shear stress effects from oxygen transfer improvement, the oxygen transfer coefficient was experimentally measured and modelled using a Volume Of Fluid numerical simulation. Our results indicated the absence of an oxygen limitation, which confirmed that this cell response resulted from the hydrodynamic stress increase alone. Lastly, an innovative continuous and perfused Couette-Taylor reactor, allowing a better-controlled hydrodynamic environment was designed and sized. Its hydrodynamic description was carried out using CFD calculations
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Naziha Barbouche. Réponse biologique de cellules animales à des contraintes hydrodynamiques : simulation numérique, expérimentation et modélisation en bioréacteurs de laboratoire. Alimentation et Nutrition. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL075N⟩. ⟨tel-01753059⟩

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