Variabilité spatio-temporelle des HAP et des communautés microbiennes dans la rhizosphère d’un sol historiquement contaminé

Abstract : Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic pollutants in soil, whose degradation in aged-contaminated soil is limited by their low bioavailability. The ability of plants to promote pollutant dissipation through the action of rhizosphere microorganisms has been shown (rhizodegradation). However contrasted results were obtained suggesting spatio-temporal variability of processes. Different experiments, with different time and space scales, using microcosm and field trials were achieved to precise phenomena. Study of spatial variability of PAH and bacterial diversity were done in two-contrasted rhizospheres (ryegrass and alfalfa) at centimeter scale after 37 days of plant growth, on a wasteland aged contaminated soil Results showed spatial structuration of sugar content, pH, bacterial diversity and microbial density, depending on plant species, but no vertical gradient was observed for PAH concentration. Study of temporal variability of processes showed dissipation of bioavailable fraction of pollutant in just 6 days and in comparison with bare soil, a positive impact of plant was shown on PAH dissipation and on expression of PAH dioxygenase genes. A long-term study (over 6 years) in a field trial revealed that plant cover slowed down PAH dissipation and impacted bacterial and fungal diversity as edaphic parameters. All these results underlined the importance of PAH bioavailability for the dissipation process and of spatio-temporal dynamic of microbial community, in the rhizosphere
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Amélia Bourceret. Variabilité spatio-temporelle des HAP et des communautés microbiennes dans la rhizosphère d’un sol historiquement contaminé. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0009⟩. ⟨tel-01754573⟩

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