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Optimisation de l’extraction des caroténoïdes à partir du persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), de l’abricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) et de la pêche (Prunus persica L.) : étude photophysique en vue d’une application en thérapie photodynamique (PDT)

Abstract : Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically used technique for treating skin diseases, age-relatedmacular degeneration but mainly some types of cancer. PDT involves three components: a photosensitive molecule named photosensitizer (PS), light and oxygen. After administration of the PS, this one will be located more or less selectively in tumoral regions where it is activated by light irradiation at appropriate wavelength and power. This leads to the formation of highly reactive and cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially singlet oxygen, resulting in the destruction of the tumor by necrosis or apoptosis. To improve the treatment selectivity, different strategies are being exploited, one of which is the development of "photodynamic molecular beacons" (PMB). In PMB the photosensitizer is linked via a peptide to an inhibitor of 1O2 (quencher). This quencher inhibits the formation of 1O2 as long as the compound has not reached its target, namely cancer cells. In order to inhibit the toxicity of the PS in non-target cells and restore toxicity only close to the biological target, it is necessary to find an adequate PS/quencher couple. This remains a challenge for PDT. Carotenoids are interesting candidates due to their specific photophysical properties and ability to inhibit 1O2, which makes them potential quenchers for building PMBs. In plants, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are pigments involved in the photosynthesis, in which they play two main roles: a light collecting role and a protecting role by preserving the photosynthetic systems against photoxydative damages induced by a too intense light exposure. This protection can for instance occur via the well-known xanthophylls cycle. This capacity to catch energy presents a potential interest that should not be neglected in the framework of the design of PMBs usable in photodynamic therapy. Within the framework as part of this PhD thesis in Cotutelle with the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, we focused on carotenoids from three fruits produced in Tunisia: persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and peache (Prunus persica L.), known for their global richness in these natural pigments. Three extraction processes were investigated: (i) the Soxhlet extraction based on the use of organic solvent at atmospheric pressure and used as reference, (ii) the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using organic solvent under high pressure, and (iii) the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using supercritical CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent. For these two last processes, a design of experiments (Surface Response Design) was used to identify the key factors and optimal extraction conditions of various carotenoids (pressure, temperature, flow, % cosolvent, time, number of cycles). Then, HPLC-PDA coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) enabled the identification and quantification of carotenoids from the extracts. Thus it was possible to compare the profiles in carotenoids content from each fruit as well as the performances of each extraction process. This study showed that the carotenoidic profile in the persimmon was the most interesting as compared to the profiles in the two other fruits. Extraction and purification of the carotenoids from persimmon by preparative high pressure liquid chromatography were then performed in order to have a sufficient amount of each carotenoid and sometimes of their conformational isomers. We finally performed a study of their photophysical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission, 1O2 inhibition) in order to evaluate their potential as 1O2 quencher in molecular construction such as a PMB
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Khalil Zaghdoudi. Optimisation de l’extraction des caroténoïdes à partir du persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.), de l’abricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) et de la pêche (Prunus persica L.) : étude photophysique en vue d’une application en thérapie photodynamique (PDT). Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LORR0297⟩. ⟨tel-01754591⟩

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