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Optimisation des cultures d’agromine du Cd et du Zn sur des Technosols construits

Abstract : In the context of the increasing scarcity of non-renewable natural resources, the soil engineering has already allowed to build fertile Technosols exclusively from the recycling of abandoned industrial byproducts. However, it has also been shown that plant growth can be limited by various constraints related to the presence of inorganic contaminants in the used materials. Therefore agromining, which aims to recycle strategic metals from the environment, represents a promising strategy for ecological and sustainable management of these agricultural systems. To better understand the processes controlling pedogenesis and evolution of Technosols and the potential of agromining on these soils, a series of experiments in controlled conditions and field were performed with (i) Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator species of Cd and Zn, (ii) on Technosols constructed from abandoned materials (iii) amended or not with organic compounds (compost or biochar). At the field scale, the results attest that Technosols properties are strongly influenced by the used parent materials. Industrial by-products used in soil construction can have an adverse effect for the initial plant biomass production due to the increase in soil salinity. A detailed characterization of metal speciation highlighted a very rapid evolution of Technosols in particular the dissolution and leaching of soluble mineral phases and the formation of new sorbent phases (Fe oxides and Mn) reducing the chemical availability metals. Under controlled conditions, biochar or compost amendments tend to improve nutrient availability. This can be attributed to the increase in enzyme activities and microbial diversity, at both structural and functional level, particularly in case of compost addition. This results an increase of essential elements content in the aerial parts of the plant. Regarding trace elements, adding to the soil biochar leads to a decrease of their availability, while an opposite effect was observed during compost addition. However, the two amendments increase the concentration of metals in shoots with a superior effect of compost with respect to biochar. Thus, hyperaccumulator species Noccaea caerulescens has shown its ability to establish on low fertility Technosols and concentrate high levels of Cd and Zn above the threshold of hyperaccumulation demonstrating then the feasibility of agromining of these metals. Moreover, both amendments appeared relevant to improve phytoextraction from abandoned industrial materials.
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Ali Kanso. Optimisation des cultures d’agromine du Cd et du Zn sur des Technosols construits. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine; Université libanaise, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0065⟩. ⟨tel-01754659⟩

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