Architecture de la plomberie du volcan carbonatitique Oldoinyo Lengai : nouvelles contraintes sur la source, les transferts hydrothermaux, et la différenciation magmatique dans la chambre active : nouvelles contraintes sur la source, les transferts hydrothermaux, et la différenciation magmatique dans la chambre active

Abstract : The uniqueness of Oldoinyo Lengai to emit natrocarbonatite lavas makes this volcano a natural laboratory to study the genesis of these magmas. New helium isotopic data permit to assert that the signature of the fumaroles has been constant since 1988 despite the radical morphological change of the summit crater after the last sub-Plinian eruption in 2007-2008. The alternation of the effusive and explosive eruptions does not cause major modifications in the hydrothermal system architecture, which is inferred to be deeply rooted. Cognate xenoliths that were emitted during the eruption in 2007-2008 represent a unique opportunity to document the igneous processes occurring within the active magma chamber. The comparison between the noble gas (helium) isotopic compositions of the active magma chamber and those of the other silicate volcanoes of the Arusha region indicates that both types of magmatism have similar sources, identified as being a typical sub-continental lithospheric mantle, which was previously metasomatized by asthenospheric fluids. Moreover, these isotopic signatures confirm that no crustal contamination has occurred during the magma ascent from the mantle to the surface. Detailed petrographic descriptions coupled to a thermo-barometric approach, and to the determination of volatile solubility models for a phonolite composition, allow us to identify the melt evolution at magma chamber conditions and the storage parameters. These results indicate that the magma injected in 2007 has a phonolitic composition and contains a high amount of volatiles (3.2 wt.% H2O and 1.4 wt.% CO2) as well as a temperature around 1060° C. This magma subsequently evolved in the crustal magma chamber located at 11.5 ± 3.5 km depth until reaching a nephelinite composition and a temperature of 880°C. During the differentiation in the magma chamber, the silicate magma is enriched in calcium, sodium, magnesium and iron, whereas the content of silicate, potassium and aluminum decreases. Our results support previous studies related to this eruption, and are similar to the historical products emitted during the whole volcano history, permitting the suggestion that no major modification in the plumbing system has occurred during the Oldoinyo Lengai evolution. The trace elements (REE, LILE and HFSE) measured in the minerals and melt inclusions reveal a concentration reaching 100 to 1000 times the primitive mantle composition. A preliminary experimental study based on the recharge melt composition (phonolite) and identified magma chamber conditions (P, T) permits to reproduce the immiscibility between silicate and carbonatite liquids, key processes at the origin of the Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites. The continuation of this experimental study will lead to a better comprehension of the carbonatite genesis, thus improving our understanding of the processes that are responsible for the enrichment in trace elements
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Gaëlle Mollex. Architecture de la plomberie du volcan carbonatitique Oldoinyo Lengai : nouvelles contraintes sur la source, les transferts hydrothermaux, et la différenciation magmatique dans la chambre active : nouvelles contraintes sur la source, les transferts hydrothermaux, et la différenciation magmatique dans la chambre active. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0123⟩. ⟨tel-01762385⟩

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