La construction du sens du développement des compétences psychosociales : justifications et usages en promotion de la santé

Abstract : Since the work of World Health Organization (1946) on health promotion, summarized into the Ottawa International Charter (1986), the concept of life skills, defined as "person’s abilities to respond effectively to the requirements and tests of everyday life" appears essential part in any educational practice related to health. In over 30 years, the field of health promotion has provided any educational approach with strategies, methods and intervention tools designed, in particular, to help people develop or improve life skills. Nowadays, in France, in numerous calls of proposals, the development of life skills is a usual aim for funders of prevention and health education programs. But although often considered essential by health education professionals in their actions, the development of life skills is not yet a real object of scientific research, and its effectiveness remains rather unconfirmed. The main objective of this thesis work is to explore through a comprehensive sociological and pragmatic approach, the meaning of the intervention aimed for the development of life skills. This research is based on a discourse analysis, especially on two axes: 1) individual skills acquisition, carried by health promotion practitioners, and 2) daily use of the development of life skills, by field workers within education area in its broader sense. This analysis is supposed to help to understand worldviews transmitted by different actors through their action. The research first focuses on the study of health promotion field as ideal type to delineate its area and to identify people interested in this topic. Its theoretical basis and its ethical and socio-historical dimensions are questioned to find out the development of life skills object and to understand its goals. According to Boltansky, health promotion is a "city", considered both as a new concept and as anunder construction space of social practices. Then, these works aim to determine whether the development of life skills is a component of the new approach of the so-called "global health" as an issue for population health management. Based on other area findings (i.e. occupation, business, education and training), all of which directly and widely concerned by development of life skills, the questions they asked can by divided in two categories: 1) how was built the life skill concept– and its development-, and 2) the politicization movement which undergoes the use of development of life skills in health promotion actions. The intervention for development of life skills is a political action that engages our study at the heart of educational issues and social policies. The construction of life skills concept in the own theoretical discourse on health promotion, fed by contributions coming from other social area, induces actors’ politicization process (accountability and adaptability). The purpose of the intervention for the development of life skills in health promotion is certainly human development in its psychological (autonomy) and social (citizenship) dimensions, but the requirements involve and engage the individual in a recognized and accepted self-monitoring mechanism (individual empowerment). The meaning of development of life skills can be found in an interval where an ethic paradigm shift – to the benefit of a better individual and societies’ well being - is raising, and in an area where, to some extent, personal self-realization turns to a mercantile happiness in the liberal economic sphere
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Grazia Zavettieri-Mangin. La construction du sens du développement des compétences psychosociales : justifications et usages en promotion de la santé. Sociologie. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0284⟩. ⟨tel-01765184⟩

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