Performances des tests d'Ames et micronoyaux triton appliqués à l'étude de la génotoxicité d'effluents complexes et des interactions entre polluants

Abstract : We have compared the Ames test and the micronucleus abilities to detect the genotoxic potentiality of wastewaters. The micronucleus test on newt is agood tool for detecting the genotoxic potentialities of these kind of samples. This test is (1) sensitive, it does not need any extraction or concentration step of micropolluants ; (2) representative of environnemental conditions exposure ; (3) and easy to used. But, it should be necessary to automate the smaers counting. On the contrary the Ames test generally needs a concentration step to detect the genotoxicity of wastewter. This test is well adapted for genotoxicity screening and for small volumes of samples. We have studied the combined effects of FeIII CrIII, CrVI and Zn in the induction of micronucleated cells newt larvae. Our results are the following : 1) trivalent iron is genotoxic, 2) CrIII and CrVI are not systematically genotoxic, 3) an additive genotoxic effect has been observed when FeIII and CrVI are combined, 4) zinc is not genotoxic. Finally we have studied the genotoxic mecanism of iron. FeIII could induce an oxidative stress responsible for DNA damages. Indeed, the micronucleated cells level induced by trivalent iron is enhanced when the newt larvae are simultaneously exposed to non genotoxic concentrations of cyanide, this compound is known to modify the oxidative metabolism of the cells
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Fabrice Godet. Performances des tests d'Ames et micronoyaux triton appliqués à l'étude de la génotoxicité d'effluents complexes et des interactions entre polluants. Toxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1993. Français. ⟨NNT : 1993METZ011S⟩. ⟨tel-01775432⟩

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