Les transferts d'apprentissage dans le cadre des transferts technologiques informatiques : le cas du maquettage en conception informatique

Abstract : The goal of this research was to investigate, in the actual situation of designing a software prototype, the transfer of competencies in software designers who are confronted with the rapid technological advances of their working environments. In particular, we investigated the transfer of knowledge from a tool of procedural programming on a mainframe environment (Pacbase) to a new graphical design tool using a network and a workstation (NSDK). The procedure is determining the average mental model of three classes of software designers (those who are expert in Pacbase, those who are expert in NSDK, and the beginners in NSDK who had prior knowledge of Pacbase) and in comparing the performances of these groups. Based on general framework theories about schema, mental models, and analogical reasoning, we developed a psycho-cognitif analysis model : (i) to determine the reasoning patterns of each group, (ii) to diagnose and explain the type of errors made by beginners, (iii) to propose recommendations aimed at improving the technological transfer. This model of analysis allowed us to classify the mental models of the software designers according to four conceptual levels : (i) the organization of their activity (action model), (ii) the different strategies used in problem solving (problem solving model), (iii) the types of human-machine interaction (interaction model), and (iv) the knowledge necessary to build the prototype (reference model). Quantitative and qualitative data obtained both from observations and from the detailed analysis of the individual protocols indicated that the problems met by beginners to conceive the prototype and interact with the new environment are due essentially to the inadequacy between their previous competencies using a mainframe (applied by analogical reasoning to the new situation), and the new knowledge required to develop the prototype in the next programming environment. Besides this negative transfer, the old tool (Pacbase) is also to blame because it forces the software designers to adopt a strict and rigid mode of reasoning. So, the designers cannot adjust their reasoning to the new environment. An explanatory model of these cognitive disturbances has been developed. Finally, ergonomic recommendations are proposed to help the transition to a new technology
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Marc-Eric Bobillier-Chaumon. Les transferts d'apprentissage dans le cadre des transferts technologiques informatiques : le cas du maquettage en conception informatique. Psychologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1999. Français. ⟨NNT : 1999METZ004L⟩. ⟨tel-01775782⟩

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